Falcon 9 launches Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich ocean science satellite

WASHINGTON — A SpaceX Falcon 9 efficiently launched Nov. 21 the most recent in a collection of satellites developed by america and Europe to trace rising sea ranges.

The Falcon 9 lifted off from House Launch Advanced (SLC) 4 East at Vandenberg Air Pressure Base in California at 12:17 p.m. Jap. Its payload, the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich satellite tv for pc, separated from the rocket’s higher stage practically an hour later, after a quick second burn of the higher stage. The rocket’s first stage landed on a pad again at SLC-4.

Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich is the primary of two satellites collectively developed by a gaggle of companies in america and Europe, together with NASA, NOAA, the European House Company, Eumetsat and the European Fee, to supply exact measurements of rising sea ranges.

The spacecraft will guarantee a continuity of measurements courting again practically three a long time, beginning with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite tv for pc launched in 1992 and adopted by the three Jason spacecraft launched in 2001, 2008 and 2016. These earlier spacecraft have been joint tasks of NASA, NOAA, Eumetsat and the French house company CNES, whereas Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich is taken into account a part of the Copernicus program of Earth remark satellites by ESA and the EU.

“It’s the primary time that ESA and NASA have actually collaborated in such an built-in means on an Earth remark satellite tv for pc,” stated Pierrik Vuilleumier, Sentinel-6 undertaking supervisor at ESA, throughout a Nov. 20 pre-launch briefing. NASA and ESA are every spending about half a billion {dollars} on the whole program, which features a second Sentinel-6 satellite tv for pc that may launch in the course of the last decade.

The spacecraft itself, weighing 1,192 kilograms at launch, was constructed by Airbus Defence and House in Germany. It has a particular look with two body-mounted photo voltaic panels that appear to be the roof of a home. That design is meant to maximise the facility they will present with out requiring the usage of deployable arrays and motors than can induce vibrations within the spacecraft.

The spacecraft’s foremost instrument is a radar altimeter offered by ESA, which bounces radio pulses off the ocean to measure sea degree in addition to wave top and ocean velocity. It’s supported by a microwave radiometer developed at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which measures water vapor within the ambiance to offering timing corrections for the radar altimeter.

Additionally on Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich is a world navigation satellite tv for pc system radio occultation (GNSS-RO) instrument to supply measurements of the atmospheric temperature and moisture by measuring indicators from GPS and different navigation satellites. That instrument is much like these on the six COSMIC-2 satellites launched in June 2019. Along with measuring atmospheric situations, knowledge from the GNSS-RO instrument can be used with that from three different sensors to exactly measure the spacecraft’s orbit, at an altitude of 1,336 kilometers and an inclination of 66 levels.

Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich will function in the identical orbit as Jason-3, with the 2 satellites about 30 seconds aside. That can help within the commissioning of the brand new spacecraft, a course of that may take a few 12 months, stated Remko Scharroo, undertaking scientist for the mission at Eumetsat. “They are going to mainly see the identical ocean situations, and that, in fact, makes evaluating the measurements significantly better,” he stated at a pre-launch briefing.

Whereas the spacecraft options improved decision and precision in comparison with its predecessors, scientists emphasised the significance of constant a collection of measurements of sea degree top courting again practically three a long time. Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich “will proceed our file of sea floor top observations nicely into the subsequent decade,” stated Karen St. Germain, director of NASA’s Earth science division.

“It’s a crucial remark for plenty of causes, however its energy is actually unleashed once we mix our altimetry observations of the ocean floor top measurements with the observations we get from the opposite satellites within the NASA fleet and the worldwide fleet,” she continued. “We will see not solely that the ocean degree is rising however we are able to additionally inform how a lot of that change is coming from melting ice sheets and glaciers, and the way a lot of that change is coming from thermal growth of the oceans themselves.”

That satellite tv for pc knowledge has proven that sea ranges usually are not solely rising, but in addition that the speed of improve is accelerating. Sea ranges have been rising on the charge of about two millimeters per 12 months within the Nineties, stated Josh Willis, undertaking scientist for the mission at JPL, however are actually growing at 4 to 5 millimeters per 12 months. “We’re watching the speed of sea-level rise improve proper earlier than our very eyes, and it’s satellites like this that enable us to do it,” he stated.

“We can’t ignore that our planet is altering,” stated Pierre Delsaux, deputy director basic for house for the European Fee, at a briefing concerning the mission in October. “The local weather is altering. No one can deny it. From that perspective, we have to perceive why the local weather is altering, what are the elements, and we have to monitor the scenario.”

NASA and ESA named the spacecraft after Michael Freilich, a former director of NASA’s Earth science division, throughout a ceremony early this 12 months. Freilich, who retired from NASA in 2019 after main NASA’s Earth science packages for greater than a decade, died of most cancers in August.

“This partnership could be very a lot aligned with what Mike Freilich’s ardour has been,” stated Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA affiliate administrator for science, on the pre-launch briefing, noting Freilich’s analysis in ocean sciences earlier than taking the NASA place. “I wish to let you know how honored I really feel, and the way it nonetheless strikes me at this time, that the identify of Michael Freilich is, in reality, on this spacecraft.”

“It’s an additional special occasion once we will see this satellite tv for pc launch, the satellite tv for pc that he labored so arduous to place in place,” stated St. Germain.

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